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cemetery: Powązki, Warszawa
photography: Jacek Michiej
Limanowa

Cmentarz wojenny nr 368 Limanowa-Jabłoniec

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Cemetery No. 368 in Jabłońcu - located at an altitude of 518 m above sea level, a war cemetery from the First World War on Jablonec Hill (624 m above sea level) in Limanowa. It is located 1700 m from the national road No. 28 on the section from Limanowa to Nowy Sącz. A steep and narrow access road leads to the cemetery from this road. [source: Wikipedia, 2011703]
type of the cemeterywar
state of the cemeteryclosed
[source: Wikipedia, 2011703]
Poland
the area where services are available
area where services are not available
History
It is a representative cemetery of the district of X, very carefully made and well maintained. According to Roman Frodym, this is one of the most interesting architectural cemeteries in entire West Galicia. Soldiers of the Austro-Hungarian and Russian army who were killed on December 7-12, 1914 during the Limanowa-Pawanska operation were buried there. It ended with the victory of Austrian troops who stopped the Russian offensive towards Krakow and Silesia. The well-fortified Jabłoniec hill was captured on December 11, mainly in the fight by Hungarian hurried hussars. The Austro-Hungarian troops were commanded by Colonel Othmar Muhr, who died in this fight. The fights were also held in other places. The cemetery was buried: * 161 soldiers of the Austro-Hungarian army from the 34th infantry Regiment, 34 Regiment of Rifles, 10th Regiment of Honored Infantry, 11 Dragoon Regiment, 4, 9, 10, 13 Hussars Regiment, 45 Fieldwat Regiment Landwery, 212, 215 216 battalion of spare land-registry; * 1 German from 219 Prussian reserve infantry regiment * 247 soldiers of the Russian army from the Caucasian division of General Dragomir and 10th division of Gen. Keller's cavalry. In addition, there is the second, smaller War Cemetery No. 369 in the nearby Golców - Stara Wieś-Golców, where soldiers who died during the Limanowa battle were also buried. [source: Wikipedia, 2011703]
The first burial
After the battle, hundreds of bodies of killed soldiers lay in the vicinity of Jablonec. Only the officers' bodies were transported to Tymbark shortly after the battle, where their December 13 solemnly was buried in the local cemetery. Burial of soldiers The command of the Austrian troops ordered the mayor of Stara Wieś who, on 13-20 December 1914, did this with the help of peasants from neighboring towns. They were buried on the hill Jabłoniec without coffins and without shoes, only the body was wrapped in a military cloak. Austrian, Hungarian and Russian soldiers were buried separately. [source: Wikipedia, 2011703]
Construction of the cemetery
The proper cemetery was still made during the war. It came to this in 1915, immediately after the victory of the Russian army farther east as a result of the Battle of Gorlice, victorious for the Austrians. The author of the project is Gustav Ludvig (1876-1952). No forces and resources were spared for construction - it was intended to be a representative cemetery. He was to reflect the spirit of the great events of those days and to express thanksgiving to all fallen heroes there. On the Jabłoniec hill, an earth slope was built up, supported by a plinth made of broken stone. A viewing and walking terrace with a length of 128 m was led through the escarpment. On its northern side, a high stone obelisk with a Maltese cross was built. The proper, surrounded by a stone wall, is located on the south side of the walking terrace. Not all the assumptions of the Gustav Ludvig project have been implemented. Most of the works on the construction of the cemetery were carried out by Italian prisoners under the leadership of Krakow artists (Henryk Uziembły and Jan Szczepkowski) and Slovak Dušan Jurkovič. A corpse of soldiers from the makeshift cemetery next to it was moved to the newly made cemetery. [source: Wikipedia, 2011703]
Chapel-mausoleum
The cemetery from the First World War is entered by two gates made of forged steel on a stone walled fence. In the middle between the gates there is a mausoleum chapel. It is topped with a high dome covered with red tile carp and topped with a cross placed on a ball. Formerly, when the trees in the cemetery were small, this dome towered over the forestless hill and was visible from a distance. The chapel is octagonal, made of stone. The corners are made of 5-sided columns, also made of stone. Above the chapel, and under the dome there is also an eight-side tambour with windows, in which formerly were colored fast (now they are closed with cast-iron shutters). The design of the chapel refers to the North-Italian type of chapel architecture. It was called the chapel-mausoleum, because in the past Colonel Othmar Muhr was buried inside (in the interwar period his remains were moved to the family tomb in Hungary). [source: Wikipedia, 2011703]
Cemetery facilities
The proper cemetery from World War I has the shape of an irregular polygon. Inside its wall on the south, quite steep slope, there are graves of Austrian and Russian soldiers. In total there are 31 single and 34 collective graves. The area underneath was not carefully tidied up. Along the rows of tombstones, paths were run in parallel. The cemetery is full of greenery and has the character of a landscape park. Tombstones of Austrian soldiers are crowned with a cast-iron cross, and Russian soldiers with a cast-iron cross (double, Orthodox). In the place where Colonel Othmar Muhr died, a monument was made. It is crowned with a sphere that is to architecturally refer to the chapel. In the lower part of the cemetery there is a triangular obelisk dedicated to the memory of the Hungarian honved who died here. [source: Wikipedia, 2011703]
Cemetery of Soviet soldiers
On the north side of the walking route there is a terrace with a high column, to which you descend down the stone steps. Initially, it was an observation deck, from which there was a very wide panorama, including for the entire Łososińskie Range and lying below Limanowa. Currently, the view obscures the tree. After the Second World War, on this terrace a cemetery of Soviet soldiers and guerrillas was made, whose corpses were exhumed and transported here from the whole Limanowa poviat. 250 Soviet soldiers were buried here in several mass graves where there are low tombstones with a five-pointed star typical for Soviet cemeteries. [source: Wikipedia, 2011703]
The cemetery's surroundings
Outside the cemetery, on the meadow from the south-west side there is a tall column. It commemorates Leonard von Thun und Hohenstein - the Captain of the 9th Hussar Regiment, who conquered the Jabłoniec Hill. It was built in the place where he died, and he was funded by his family, who took the corpse from the cemetery. It is made of granite, also according to the design of Gustav Ludvig. There is an inscription and an ancestral coat on it. A walking route leads to the column, from which there is a wide panorama to the south side, to the hills of the Beskid Wyspowy. [source: Wikipedia, 2011703]
Hiking trails
: blue: Limanowa - Jabłoniec - Golców - The Ostra-Cichoń Pass. : green: Limanowa - Jabłoniec - Łyżka - Pępówka - Łukowica. [source: Wikipedia, 2011703]
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