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cemetery: Pow±zki, Warszawa
photography: Jacek Michiej
Kraków

Cmentarz wojskowy

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Military cemetery - a municipal cemetery in Krakow, in the District and the Old Town, entered in the register of monuments in 1976. It has an area of about 11 ha. [source: Wikipedia, 2149997]
type of the cemeterymilitary and communal
[source: Wikipedia, 2149997]
Poland
the area where services are available
area where services are not available
History
KrakĂłw, although it was the seat of a strong Austrian garrison (Krakow Fortress), did not have a separate military cemetery. Fallen and dead soldiers were buried at the Municipal Cemetery (Rakowicki). The years of the First World War and the proximity of the front brought so many sacrifices that the places on nine civil cemeteries in KrakĂłw began to be scarce. Only at the Municipal Cemetery, more than 9,000 fallen soldiers were buried. This situation forced the municipal and military authorities to act. However, competence disputes caused that the cemetery was created only two years after the war. In 1920, on the site of the former military exercises square, the sapper unit of the former Austrian Imperial-Royal Army, located in the suburb of Warsaw at ul. Prandoty, a small cemetery of 10 square meters was created. The first people buried here were the dead soldiers and officers of the Polish Army and members of their families, veterans of the January Uprising, soldiers killed in the Polish-Bolshevik war, insurgents from Silesia, insurgents from Greater Poland. When in the 1930s the area of Rakowicki Cemetery was enlarged, both necropolises were divided only by ul. Prandoty. During World War II, soldiers of the Polish Army, German soldiers, British prisoners were buried at the cemetery, and in 1945 soldiers of the Red Army were buried. After 1945, the cemetery began to manage the city, soldiers' burials were cleaned, exhumations were carried out and separate units of soldiers of various armies were created, the cemetery was expanded and civilians were buried there, and the numbering of the quarters was a continuation of the Rakowicki Cemetery numbering. Currently, apart from soldiers, many people are buried in it, science, culture, artists, politicians, and sportsmen. Currently, the cemetery is managed together with the Rakowicki Cemetery and is often treated as its military part, although it is and has always been a separate necropolis. [source: Wikipedia, 2149997]
Accommodation
January insurgents. On January 21, 1919, on the 56th anniversary of the outbreak of the uprising, they received the order of Marshal Piłsudski, honorary title of lieutenants-veterans of the Polish Army and the right to wear a gala uniform. They also received the right to be buried at the newly-created military cemetery in Krakow. These are two small rows of graves in quarters 1 and 3, in which 17 insurgents were buried. Their graves have a uniform form and were funded by the Polish Society for the Care of the Heroes' Graves. In the belt 106. there is a tomb-mausoleum of participants of the Silesian uprisings and the Wielkopolska Uprising. First World War. ; Military Cemetery No. 388 Kraków-Rakowice, plot 3 Lodges 1, 2, 3, and 4 cemeteries are part of the Austrian War Cemetery No. 388, the main part, the two remaining quarters, are located at the Rakowicki Cemetery. From the original appearance of the cemetery, project of Eng. Hupert, almost nothing has been preserved. During several reconstructions in the 1930s, tomb crosses were rearranged in such a way that it is not known exactly to which army belong the soldiers lying under them. Austro-Hungarian and Russian soldiers who died in 1914-1918 were buried there, and exhumed from random burial places in the vicinity of Krakow and soldiers from the Kraków garrison who died in 1918-1939. The Polish-Bolshevik war. The Krakow youth, who died in 1914-1920, commemorates the monument unveiled in 1926 and then called (although this name did not accept) the Monument to the Krakow Eagles. He was dedicated to secondary school youth of the Krakow District Board. On the boards on the monument, students from several dozen junior high schools and teacher seminars in Krakow, in Biała, Chrzanów, Gorlice, Częstochowa, Jasło, Miechów, Kielce, Myślenice, Nowy Targ, Olkusz, Ostrowiec, Radom, Sosnowiec, Solec, Stary Sącz, Sandomierz , Tarnów and Wieliczka, and Zawiercie. The Second World War. The soldiers' quarters of the Polish Army On the left from the entrance to the cemetery, there is a quarters of soldiers of the Polish Army who died in September 1939 near Krakow. 146 Polish soldiers were buried here. It is commemorated by a monument unveiled in 1990 and designed by Piotr Chwastarz, Henryk Olszówka and Grzegorz Kawczyński. In 1993, 52 urns were placed with him from the battlefields of the Kraków Army and from Katyn, Ostashkov and Miednoje. British soldiers' quarters. Located in the western part of the cemetery. It is one of the three martial British cemeteries in the Polish lands. A simple cross in the middle of the quarters, simple tombstones with names, regiments or units emblems and beautifully maintained greenery distinguish all the British war cemeteries around the world. 522 subjects of the British monarch are buried here: 360 soldiers, 128 aviators, 7 sailors, 24 civilians and 3 unknown persons. They died and died in southern Poland during the Second World War, and after the end of hostilities their ashes were transferred to this quarters. They rest here, among others prisoners from the stalag VIII B Lamsdorf and the hospital in Langenbielau and airmen from the base in Brindisi, shot down over Poland as they flew with the discharges to support the Warsaw Uprising. ; Soviet soldiers' quarters. Located in the northern part of the cemetery. In 156 collective graves, 1578 soldiers of the 59th and 60th Armies of the 1st Ukrainian Front were killed in the January offensive of 1945. They are commemorated by their Orthodox cross and a monument by Leonard Demarczyk. Here, in July 1997, ashes of 19 soldiers and a monument (the work of Karol Muszkieta) were moved from a cemetery located since 1945 in the Planty near Barbican. Accommodation of German soldiers. They are located next to the quarters of Polish soldiers. Two quarters, where 2,750 German soldiers were buried in 1939-1945, commemorated in 1992 with simple stone crosses and a plaque with the inscription: German AUS DIESEM FRIEDHOF RUHEN 2750 DEUTSCHE SOLDATEN DES KRIEGES 1939-1945 GEDENKET IHRER UND DER OPFER ALLER KRIEGE and THE POLISH HERE 2750 SOLDIERS OF THE GERMAN WAR OF 1939-1945 FOR THEIR MEMORY AND MEMORY OF SACRIFICE OF ALL WARS. Nearby, on the other side of the alley, there is a row of graves. This is the grave of 11 sappers from the 13th Kołobrzeg Battalion of the 6th Pomeranian Infantry Division, who died on May 13, 1946 at the Czyżyny airfield, liquidating unexploded bombs. Others are buried. Next to the monument of the Krakow Eagles, in the quarter of soldiers of World War I, there is a simple tombstone of Nepomucen Piasecka, the wife of a bricklayer from Września. She was the mother of five children who participated in the school strike in Września in 1901. In their defense, she threw herself at the Prussian gendarmes. Imprisoned and then released on bail, she escaped to the Austrian partition, where she lived with her family in Lviv. She spent the last years of her life in Krakow. On the other side of the Eagle monument there is a gravestone of a Georgian soldier Niko Agniaszwilego (born 1901, died 1928). He was a second lieutenant in the 4th Polish Army Regiment of Podhale Rifles. Nothing is known about his fate, there is an inscription on the tombstone - God, give freedom to Georgia! In the quarters 7 is the grave of Brigadier General Bernard Mond. He participated in the First World War in the ranks of the Austrian army, in 1916 he was taken prisoner by the Russians. Defender of Lviv in 1918. Participant in the Polish-Bolshevik war. In the September campaign he was the commander of the 6th Infantry Division. His son Adam Mond (died 1988), a soldier of the Home Army, a participant in the Warsaw Uprising, is also buried in the family grave. Apartments 4 and 4a - this is the resting place of many pilots, co-founders of the Polish aviation, eg: Stanisław Jasiński, pilot colonel, chief of aviation of the Supreme Command in 1918-1920, during the Polish-Bolshevik war; Jan Sendorka, Legion's officer, lieutenant colonel of the Polish Army, Władysław Madeyski, POW instructor, Legion's officer, aviation captain and head of the Polish Aeronautics Department, who was the deputy commander of the 309 Squadron during World War II. In the 6th headquarters there is a Westerplatte defender, Mieczysław Słaby, doctor. graves of many people of science and art, athletes. A painter, a professor of the Academy of Fine Arts in Krakow, Wacław Taranczewski, was buried here, on whose grave there is a sculpture, Christ the King of the Universe, Bronisław Chromy. There is the grave of Czesław Carchewczyk, hockey player and sports activist, Sokoła player, from 1927 associated with Cracovia, participant of three olympics. There are graves: Julian Aleksandrowicz ps. Doctor Twardy, doctor of the internist, professor of medicine, hematologist, Karol Buczek, historian-medievalist, Jan Buszek (born 1906, died 1985) King of Waletów, head of the student house of UJ Żaczek, Wiesław Kielar, prisoner of the Auschwitz camp (camp number 290), cinematographer and literate, Jan Weyssenhoff, physicist, professor at Vilnius University, Jagiellonian University and Lviv Polytechnic, member of PAU and PAN. The grave of the family of Pope John Paul II is the most visited in the military cemetery. His parents are in it: Emilia z Kaczorowskich and Karol Wojtyła, and brother - Edmund Wojtyla. The tomb of the Wojtyła and Kaczorowski families is in the VI, tomb No. 11. The stays of John Paul II in the Rakowicki Cemetery and his prayer at the grave of the relatives commemorate the monument made by prof. Czesława Dźwigaj unveiled on 9 April 2005 and located at the gate of the cemetery. [source: Wikipedia, 2149997]
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