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cemetery: Pow±zki, Warszawa
photography: Jacek Michiej
Lech Kaczyński
(born on June 18, 1949 in Warsaw, died on April 10, 2010 in Smolensk) - Polish politician and lawyer. President of the Republic of Poland in 2005-2010. Opposition activist in the period of the Polish People's Republic. President of the Supreme Audit Office in 1992-1995, Minister of Justice and Attorney General in the government of Jerzy Buzek in 2000-2001, President of Warsaw in 2002-2005. Co-founder of the Law and Justice party and its first president (2001-2003), senator of the first term and member of the Sejm of the 1st and 4th term. He was a habilitated doctor in law, an associate professor at the University of Cardinal Stefan WyszyƄski in Warsaw and the University of GdaƄsk, a specialist in the field of labor law . He died in the crash of the Tu-154 government aircraft.
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Curriculum vitae

Childhood

Lech KaczyƄski was born on June 18, 1949 in Warsaw at PawƂa Suzina 3 Street in Ć»oliborz. His father, Rajmund KaczyƄski, an engineer by profession, was a soldier of the Home Army, a participant in the Warsaw Uprising, a cavalryman of the Virtuti Militari Order. The mother, Jadwiga nĂ©e Jasiewicz, was a Polish philologist (she was professionally associated with the Institute of Literary Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences). By his mother he was a descendant of noble families from the 16th century: Olszowskich, Biskupski and Kurozwęckich, on the part of his father - a descendant of the KaczyƄski family, the Pomian coat of arms. He was the twin brother of JarosƂaw KaczyƄski. At their birth, she assisted as a midwife mother of the poet Tadeusz Gajcy. The godparents of Lech KaczyƄski were his uncle, StanisƂaw Miedza-Tomaszewski, and Zofia WoĆșnicka (baptism was delayed, 3 June 1951, due to the illness of his grandfather, Aleksander Jasiewicz). The brothers played the role of Jacek (Lech KaczyƄski) and Placek (JarosƂaw KaczyƄski) in the film adaptation of Kornel MakuszyƄski's novel About Two That Who Stole the Moon from 1962 directed by Jan Batory.

Education

He attended the XLI High School for them. Joachim Lelewela in Warsaw, he graduated from XXXIX High School. Ludowy Lotnictwa Polskiego in Bielany (1967). He was a graduate of the Faculty of Law and Administration at the University of Warsaw (he studied in the years 1967-1971). In the same year, they studied with him, among others his brother JarosƂaw, Andrzej RzepliƄski, Marek Safjan, BogusƂaw WoƂoszaƄski and MirosƂaw Wyrzykowski. In 1980, based on a paper entitled The scope of the parties' freedom to shape the content of the written relationship under the direction of Roman Korolec (and after his death under the direction of CzesƂaw Jackowiak), he obtained a PhD at the University of GdaƄsk . This dissertation was awarded by the editors of the State and Law monthly . In 1990 he obtained a postdoctoral degree on the basis of the dissertation titled Social pension .

Professional activity

In the years 1971-1997 he was a research worker at the Labor Law Department of the University of GdaƄsk. In the years 1996-1999 he was a research worker at the Faculty of Law and Administration of the University of GdaƄsk (holding the post of associate professor), and from 1999 the Faculty of Law and Administration of the Cardinal Stefan WyszyƄski University in Warsaw (also in the position of associate professor, vacationed in connection with the presidency). He was the author of publications in the field of labor law: Evaluation of the amendment to the Labor Code (1996), Guide to studying labor law (1998). In the course of his scientific work, one doctoral dissertation was created under his supervision (Component systemic ability, defended in 1999 by Jakub Stelina from UG) .

Political activity

Democratic opposition

In 1971 he moved to Sopot. In autumn 1977, through his brother JarosƂaw, he established cooperation with the Intervention Bureau of the Social Self-Defense Committee of KOR, headed by Zofia and Zbigniew Romaszewski. He conducted training on labor law for workers. From 1978, he was active in the Free Trade Unions. In the years 1978-1980, together with Joanna and Andrzej Gwiazda, he lectured on labor law and the history of the Polish People's Republic for workers. He wrote in an independent Robotnik WybrzeĆŒa, and he distributed among the workers the Pracnik magazine and the KSS KOR Information Bulletin. In 1981 he became a delegate of the Solidarity Independent Independent Trade Union of GdaƄsk to the 1st National Congress of the Union's Delegates, he was elected a member of the program committee. He chaired the team for regulating relations with the Polish United Workers' Party. During martial law he was interned in Strzebielinek from December 13, 1981 to October 15, 1982. From 1983, he participated in the meetings of the Temporary Coordination Committee and in the work of the secret Regional Coordination Commission of NSZZ Solidarnoƛć. From 1985, he was part of the regional Council for Aid to Political Prisoners in GdaƄsk. During the strikes in 1988 in May and August he was an advisor, together with his brother JarosƂaw, workers striking at the GdaƄsk Shipyard. At the end of the 1980s, he became a close associate of Lech WaƂęsa, the leader of Solidarity and the future president of Poland. On September 16, 1988, he took part in talks between Solidarity and representatives of the authorities in Magdalenka near Warsaw. From December this year he belonged to the Citizens' Committee at Lech WaƂęsa. From February to April 1989, he took part in the so-called podstolikĂłw created in connection with the talks of the Round Table (where he sat in the team for trade union pluralism). From April 1989, he was a member of the presidium of the National Executive Committee of NSZZ Solidarnoƛć. In July and August 1989 he was a member of the negotiation team with the Democratic Party and the United People's Party on the part of NSZZ Solidarnoƛć regarding the establishment of a coalition government.

Political activity in the 90s

In May 1990 he was elected the first vice-chairman of the NSZZ Solidarnoƛć National Commission (he managed virtually the union during the presidential campaign of Lech WaƂęsa and after his election as the president of the Republic of Poland). He resigned from his function after losing the battle with Marian Krzaklewski for the position of chairman of Solidarity in February 1991. He was later the first chairman of the supervisory board of the Foundation for Polish Credit Unions related to the emerging system of cooperative savings and credit unions (SKOK). He was the senator of the first term (1989-1991) and a member of the Civic Parliamentary Club . Then he held the mandate of the Member of the Sejm of the 1st term (1991-1993) from the list of the Center's Civic Agreement (without being a member of the Porozumienie Centrum party). From March 12, 1991 to October 31, 1991, at the Chancellery of the President Lech WaƂęsa, he was the minister of state for security supervising the work of the National Security Bureau. He left the office after the conflict with Lech WaƂęsa and the head of his cabinet, MieczysƂaw Wachowski. On February 14, 1992, he was elected by the Sejm to the post of president of the Supreme Audit Office. He did not finish his six-year term, because in 1995, by resolutions of the Sejm (from 26 May) and the Senate (from 8 June), he was dismissed from this office. In the parliamentary election in 1993, he ran unsuccessfully from the electoral committee PC-Zjednoczenie Polskie in the Nowy Sącz constituency. He was a candidate for the office of the President of Poland in the 1995 elections. He resigned before the first round on 30 October, reporting readiness to support anyone who - in his opinion - had the chance to defeat Lech WaƂęsa (he mentioned Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz, Jan Olszewski and Jacek KuroƄ at that time) .

Minister of Justice and Prosecutor General

On June 14, 2000, he was appointed by President Aleksander Kwasniewski as the Minister of Justice in the government of Jerzy Buzek as the successor of Hanna Suchocka. He held this post until July 5, 2001. As the Prosecutor General, he published in 2000, among others guidelines for prosecutors to apply in most cases of a certain type to courts for the application of temporary detention for suspects. Subsequent use of pre-trial detention in December 2007 resulted in the so-called signaling the European Court of Human Rights, questioning in the Court's opinion too frequent and unreasonable adjudication and prolonging temporary detention.

Foundation of Law and Justice

In 2001, he headed the Law and Justice, a new (co-created with his brother) party, formed on the basis of the former Center Agreement, his collaborators from the Supreme Chamber of Control and MS and some former members of the Solidarity Electoral Action. In the same year, from the PiS list, he was elected to the Sejm of the 4th term in the GdaƄsk district. In 2001, in an interview with Radio ZET, he described MieczysƂaw Wachowski as a multiple criminal. On June 24, 2005, Lech KaczyƄski was found guilty of defamation in the first instance and sentenced to a fine. He was also accused of making a social interest and was obliged to publish an apology in the press. After the appeal of Lech KaczyƄski, the District Court in Warsaw with the verdict of December 14, 2005 revoked the appealed decision and remanded the case for re-examination. The criminal proceedings were suspended (with the suspension of the limitation period) under the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland from December 23, 2005 (in connection with the assumption of the office of the President of the Republic of Poland and his immunity), finally remitted against the death of the accused. In the spring of 2002, he led to uniting PiS with the Right Alliance. He was the president of PiS in 2001-2003 (then, until 2006, he was the honorary president). After taking office of the President of Poland, he left the party (during the second PiS congress, which took place on June 3, 2006).

President of Warsaw

From November 18, 2002 to December 22, 2005, he held the post of president of the capital city of Warsaw, elected in the first direct election held on October 27 and November 10, 2002 on behalf of the PiS. In the first round he received 49.58% of the vote, in the second he defeated the candidate of the SLD-UP coalition of Marek Balicki, obtaining 70.54% of votes . During the electoral campaign, after the meeting with the voters, he used one of Lech KaczyƄski's opinion on him - persistent participants of the words Spieprzaj, grandfather !, which was later used, among others, by satirists. Lech KaczyƄski resigned from the function at the city council session on December 22, 2005, on the day before taking office of the president, but only on February 8, 2006, by a resolution of the city council dominated by the PiS, his mandate was terminated. During his tenure, celebrations of the 60th anniversary of the outbreak of the Warsaw Uprising were organized. On this occasion, in July 2004 the President opened the Warsaw Uprising Museum . During his presidency, the service departments of the residents were also established, as well as the first routes of the Rapid Urban Railway were opened and the competition for the design of the Copernicus Science Center building was resolved. In January 2005, Lech KaczyƄski was one of the signatories of the agreement regarding the financing of the construction of the Museum of the History of Polish Jews, including from the capital city of the Capital City Warsaw. During the period of office, he also appointed the position of an animal representative. During the term of office, however, no the announced construction of the North Bridge. In 2004 and 2005, he forbade the passage of the Equality Parade through Warsaw, which caused controversy related to the compliance of this provision with the Constitution of the Republic of Poland and allegations of homophobia. Initially, he explained the refusal with the defense of public morality, and later with formal shortcomings and the fact that on the same day in Warsaw the ceremonial unveiling of the monument of Stefan Rowecki takes place. A week later, he issued a permit for the Normal Parade of Youth organized by the Youth. In 2006, the Constitutional Tribunal ruled that the law on road traffic, for which the president of the capital referred, forbidding demonstrations, is inconsistent with the Constitution of the Republic of Poland in so far as it violates the freedom of assembly. On May 3, 2007, the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg handed down the judgment, considering that the decision of the city authorities was contrary to several provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights. The political environment of Lech KaczyƄski, for one of the achievements of his presidency, also recognized the breakdown of the so-called Warsaw Treaty, allegedly a network of informal connections governing the city of the Civic Platform coalition (formerly Unia Wolnoƛci) and the Democratic Left Alliance with local entrepreneurs, under which tenders were to be set up. After breaking the coalition with the PO in the city council, the PiS supporters' club supporting the president concluded agreements with councilors associated with PaweƂ Piskorski, who was removed from the Civic Platform, created as the leader of the Warsaw system.

Presidential election in 2005

March 19, 2005, he was the first to announce his intention to apply for the highest office in the presidential election, taking first place in the polls. The election campaign initially gave him very high support. He overtook in the rankings, among others cardiac surgeon and senator Zbigniew Religa. After the election campaign of the Speaker of the Sejm, WƂodzimierz Cimoszewicz, Lech KaczyƄski fell in July to the second place in public opinion polls. After the resignation of the Speaker of the Sejm in September, he did not regain the position of the leader, who was taken in the opinion polls by Deputy Speaker of the Sejm, Donald Tusk, representing PO. In the autumn, his quotes began to grow again. The PO candidate was accused by PiS of excessive liberalism. His chances increased the PiS victory in the parliamentary election. In the first round of the presidential election, he took the second place after Donald Tusk, receiving 33% of votes. In the second round of voting, Lech KaczyƄski won the support of the milieu of Radio Maryja, Self-Defense and the Polish People's Party. During the election campaign, Jacek Kurski speculated in his election staff (responsible for the television campaign) in Angor's letter on the alleged volunteer joining of Józef Tusk, grandfather of Donald Tusk, to the Wehrmacht. In the second round of voting, on October 23, 2005, Lech KaczyƄski received 8 257 468 votes, which constituted 54.04% of voters .

President of the Republic of Poland

The term of office of the President of the Republic of Poland began on December 23, 2005 and ended with the death in a plane crash on April 10, 2010. The constitutional duties of the President of the Republic of Poland were taken over by the Speaker of the Sejm BronisƂaw Komorowski.

the foreign policy

Foreign visits of the president

Visits of foreign heads of state in Poland

President Lech KaczyƄski took in Poland, among others President George W. Bush (in June 2007), Pope Benedict XVI (in May 2006), French President Nicolas Sarkozy (in June 2007 and in May 2008), Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf (in April 2007).

Polish Military Contingents in Iraq and Afghanistan

He upheld the foreign policy pursued by Aleksander Kwaƛniewski in maintaining the military stabilization and training mission in Iraq. This mission, lasting from September 3, 2003, by order of the president issued at the request of Prime Minister Donald Tusk, ended October 31, 2008. October 29, 2008 soldiers returned from Poland in the last tenth change of the Polish Military Contingent Iraq. Pursuant to the decision of the President in 2006 issued at the request of Prime Minister JarosƂaw KaczyƄski, at the turn of April and May 2007, the Military Contingent stationed in Afghanistan was enlarged to almost 1,200 soldiers and passed under the command of the NATO Mission for International Support for Security (ISAF). At the request of Prime Minister Donald Tusk, this decision was extended for subsequent periods during which the contingent was gradually increased.

Georgia and Ukraine

He declared the support of Georgia and Ukraine for their accession to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). This position was presented during the meeting of heads of state and government of alliance member states held in Bucharest (59th NATO summit on 2-4 April 2008). In 2006, Lech KaczyƄski was to become the godfather of the son of the president of Georgia, but he left to Tbilisi due to an accident at the Halemba Coal Mine. On August 12, 2008 during the war in South Ossetia he flew to Georgia with a planned landing in Ganja. The pilot refused to accept the president's suggestion to land in Tbilisi; this incident caused media interest. In the end, Lech KaczyƄski, along with Ukrainian presidents Viktor Yushchenko, Lithuania Valdas Adamkus, Estonia Toomas Ilves and Prime Minister of Latvia Ivars Godmanis, appeared on the political rally in the capital of Georgia, granting support to the President of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili. On November 23, 2008, during the stay of Lech KaczyƄski and the President of Georgia near the Georgian-Ossetian border near the column that led them, the unidentified perpetrators fired warning shots with firearms. In this case, the investigation was initiated as part of the District Prosecutor's Office in Warsaw.

Energy policy

As part of the declared intention to create a common energy policy linking countries belonging to the European Union, Ukraine and the Caucasus republics, he organized the so-called the energy summit in Krakow on 11-12 May 2007, in which the presidents of Azerbaijan, Georgia, Lithuania and Ukraine took part. At the meeting, an agreement between Poland and Lithuania on the so-called energy bridge and preliminary intergovernmental project to build a nuclear power plant that supplies energy for the needs of the countries of the region.

Treaty of Lisbon

During the negotiation summit of the European Council in Brussels on 21 and 23 June 2007, representing the government, he made demands on the voting system in the Council of Europe to negotiate the content of the future Lisbon Treaty. Government proposal, for which only the Czech side, regarding the so-called the elemental system, in view of the so-called the principle of double majority was not supported by the President of the European Council, German Chancellor Angela Merkel. As a result, the Polish side negotiated the maintenance of the Nice system (from 2000) to 2014. The president was present in Lisbon during the ceremony of signing the treaty by Prime Minister Donald Tusk and Minister of Foreign Affairs Radoslaw Sikorski. On 30 April 2008, he was authorized to ratify the Treaty of Lisbon, which he ratified on October 10, 2009.

National policy

Nominations and appointments

During his term of office, the president appointed two presidents of the Council of Ministers, taking the oath: * July 14, 2006 from the government of JarosƂaw KaczyƄski (designated on July 10, 2006), * November 16, 2007 from the government of Donald Tusk (designated November 9, 2007). He appointed Jerzy Stępnia on November 4, 2006, and Bohdan Zdziennicki on June 25, 2008 for the position of the President of the Constitutional Tribunal. As part of his powers, on January 31, 2006, he appointed ElĆŒbieta Kruk and Wojciech Dziomdziora to the National Radio and Television Council, and after their resignation from office, he nominated Piotr Boronia (September 18, 2007) and Barbara Bubula (September 26, 2007). On January 6, 2006, he appointed Ewa StryczyƄska as his representative in the National Council of the Judiciary. In January 2007, he named the candidate for the President of the National Bank of Poland in the person of SƂawomir Skrzypek. By decision of January 3, 2008, as the first president in the Third Polish Republic, he refused to appoint nine candidates for judicial office to be appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary. He referred to art. 179 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland (using only the term he appoints). The first President of the Supreme Court, Lech Gardocki, requested that the competence dispute be resolved, however, the Constitutional Tribunal discontinued the application in the absence of evidence of a competence dispute. By decision of March 5, 2010, he appointed Prosecutor General Andrzej Seremet to the office of Attorney General and three deputies at his request on March 31, 2010.

Cabinet Council

Meetings of the Cabinet Council convoked by President KaczyƄski: * 23 February 2006 - devoted to the government's work program in 2006 and principles of cooperation between the government and the president; * June 9, 2006 - devoted to the situation in the health service, the problem of unemployment, coordination of foreign and governmental policy actions, proposals for changes in the tax treatment of authors; * 14 January 2008 - devoted to health policy; * October 28, 2008 - devoted to the government's plans to introduce the euro in Poland.

Relations with the parliament

During the ongoing political dispute in the Sejm, the president in a television announcement of 13 February 2006 announced that he would not take advantage of the prerogative to shorten the term of office in recognition of the fact that the Sejm of the 5th term did not pass the budget bill on a constitutional date. As a result of the Sejm's resolution of 7 September 2007 on shortening the term of the Sejm of the 5th term, by order of 8 September 2007, he ordered early parliamentary elections on 21 October this year. In 2008, the president sent to the Senate a draft resolution on conducting a nationwide referendum on 10-11 January 2009 regarding the commercialization and privatization of health care. By virtue of the resolution of 29 October 2008, the Senate did not agree to the referendum. On May 22, 2009, he addressed the Sejm of the 6th term on the subject of the financial crisis and the condition of the Polish economy .

Legislative activity

* Selected presidential legislative initiatives: ** 2006 - draft act amending the Constitution of the Republic of Poland in the scope of extradition and European arrest warrant; the act was adopted, changing the Constitution of the Republic of Poland on November 7, 2006; ** 2006 - draft amendment to the lustration act; ** 2007 - submission in the Sejm of a bill amending the Constitution of the Republic of Poland in the scope related to the protection of life conceived by man; the Act in the voting of 13 April 2007 was not adopted by the Sejm by a qualified majority. * Ratification of major international agreements: ** December 27, 2006 ratified the Convention between the Republic of Poland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on the avoidance of double taxation and prevention of tax evasion with respect to taxes on income and capital gains, signed in London on July 20 2006; ** March 28, 2007, ratified the international agreement on the accession of the Republic of Poland to the Convention on the law applicable to contractual obligations, so-called the Rome Convention; ** October 10, 2009 ratified the so-called Treaty of Lisbon. * Presidential veto: ** Sejm of the 5th term (the rule of Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz and JarosƂaw KaczyƄski): once; ** Sejm of the 6th term (Donald Tusk's government): seventeen times. * Selected presidential veto: ** On August 10, 2006, he vetoed the law amending the Civil Code regarding the waiver of property rights; ** On May 16, 2008, he vetoed the Act of April 25, 2008 amending the Radio and Television Act; ** November 25, 2008 vetoed the amendment to the Act on the protection of agricultural and forest land, and a day later three acts from the health care reform package; ** On December 30, 2008, he vetoed the law on the National School of Judiciary and Prosecutor's Office. * As part of his mandate, the president issued regulations on the announcement of national mourning six times.

Medal policy

The highest Polish decoration, Order of the White Eagle, was received by hierarchs of the Catholic Church (Andrzej Maria Deskur, Ignacy Tokarczuk, Kazimierz Majdanski, Henryk Gulbinowicz, JĂłzef Glemp), activists of the anti-communist opposition in the Polish People's Republic: Jan JĂłzef Lipski (posthumously), Andrzej Gwiazda and Anna Walentynowicz , former spokesperson for the public interest: BogusƂaw NizieƄski, cardiac surgeon and politician Zbigniew Religa, former prime minister Jan Olszewski, posthumously: actor Gustaw Holoubek, first speaker of the Third Polish Senate, Andrzej Stelmachowski and heroes of World War II and Nazi occupation, condemned to death or repressed during the period Stalinowski (General Emil Fieldorf, Captain Witold Pilecki, Ɓukasz CiepliƄski, Franciszek NiepokĂłlczycki, Wincenty KwieciƄski). The Order of the White Eagle was also received by the King of Saudi Arabia, Abdullah bin Abdulaziz al Saud, presidents including Czech and Slovak Republic, VĂĄclav Klaus and Ivan GaĆĄparovič. The posthumous president also awarded him Ronald Reagan. Lech KaczyƄski also gave posthumously to the families of Kazimierz PuĆŒak and Zbigniew Herbert post-mortem awards in the second half of the 1990s. In August 2006, the president deprived Helena WoliƄska-Brus of the Commander Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta granted by the Council of State in 1954 and the Knight's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta granted by the National Council in 1945. In March 2006, he awarded General Wojciech Jaruzelski with the Siberian Cross of Siberians. After disclosure of this fact by TVN, Minister Andrzej UrbaƄski from the Chancellery of the President of the Republic of Poland declared that he was decorated by mistake, because the president accepted only the provisions, not the list of people and did not realize that on the list is Wojciech Jaruzelski. After this declaration, Wojciech Jaruzelski sent back the received decoration. At the end of 2005, after his election, referring to the Order of the White Eagle, he criticized the nominations made by Aleksander Kwaƛniewski, which resulted in resignation from the function of chancellor of the chapter by Barbara Skarga. In the spring of 2007, he decided that, in the absence of the lustration declarations required by law, membership in the chapter of Tadeusz Mazowiecki and BronisƂaw Geremek expired, and soon WƂadysƂaw Bartoszewski resigned from the membership. In the course of his term, he appointed Andrzej Gwiazda, WiesƂaw Chrzanowski, Ignacy Tokarczuk and BogusƂaw NizieƄski to the chapter. In 2007, he posthumously promoted 88 soldiers and 2 clergymen who were murdered in 1940 in Katyn and Kharkiv as part of the Katyn massacre.

Other

Lech KaczyƄski pardoned 202 people, in 2006 he refused the right of grace to 550 people. Contrary to earlier announcements (related to the criticism of Aleksander Kwaƛniewski's actions), he resigned from the publication of the pardoned persons list. In 2009, he pardoned, among others three brothers convicted for murder in the so-called lynch in WƂodów, conditionally suspending the execution of imprisonment imposed on them. In the same year in the so-called a special procedure (chosen by the president's decision and omitting to consult the courts ruling on the case) and the negative opinion of the attorney general by halving the trial period and ordering the death of the conviction pardoned the entrepreneur from Kwidzyn, convicted for fraud and crime against documents. According to media reports in his criminal trial, the convict was defended by attorney Marek Dubieniecki, and a few weeks before the decision on pardon he founded with his son, Marcin Dubieniecki (who is also the son-in-law of Lech KaczyƄski), the first of several joint companies. By virtue of a decision of 16 February 2007, he published in the Monitor Polski a report by the liquidator of the WSI Antoni Macierewicz regarding the activities of military services in Poland. In connection with the judgment of the Constitutional Tribunal in this case, he decided not to disclose the contents of the annex to the report submitted to him in November 2007. On the 68th anniversary of the USSR's aggression against Poland from 1939 Lech KaczyƄski on September 17, 2007 with a delegation of Polish officials, representatives of the Katyn families and people culture took part in the ceremonies in Katyn and Smolensk commemorating the Katyn massacre. Lech KaczyƄski's initiatives were established by the National Remembrance Day of the Warsaw Uprising in 2009 and the National Day of Remembrance of Cursed Soldiers in 2011. Lech KaczyƄski was also the first president of Poland who visited the synagogue after the Second World War.

Death and funeral

On April 10, 2010, Lech KaczyƄski flew from Warsaw with the governmental aircraft Tu-154M No. 101 to go to the celebration of the 70th anniversary of the Katyn massacre. He died with his wife and all members of the delegation in the Smolensk plane crash near the Smolensk-Siewiernyj airport. His body was found on April 10, 2010, and on the evening of the same day JarosƂaw KaczyƄski identified them. With the death of the president his constitutional duties began to be temporarily performed by the Speaker of the Sejm BronisƂaw Komorowski, who ordered the national mourning lasting in Poland on April 10-18, 2010. After the autopsy of the body on April 11, the coffin with Lech KaczyƄski's body was transported by CASA airplane from Smolensk to Warsaw. On April 13, after transporting from Russia to Poland, the coffins with the body of the president's wife, both were displayed for public view in the Column Hall of the Presidential Palace. According to estimates of officials from the Chancellery of the President on April 13-17, circa 180,000 passed in front of the coffins. people. Then the coffins were transported to the Archcathedral Basilica of St. John the Baptist in Warsaw. On April 18, coffins with the bodies of Lech KaczyƄski and Maria KaczyƄska were transported by air to Krakow. The presidential couple was buried with military honors in the crypt under the Tower of Silver Bells of the Archcathedral Basilica of St. StanisƂawa and ƛw. WacƂaw on Wawel. In 2010, on the initiative of Jaroslaw KaczyƄski in the headquarters of the 92nd Powazki Cemetery in Warsaw, a kenotaph of Lech KaczyƄski and his wife Maria was created. The remains of the presidential couple were exhumed on November 15, 2016 within the framework of the exhumation of the victims of the Smolensk disaster planned by the General Prosecutor's Office, and then examined in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Collegium Medicum of the Jagiellonian University. The reburial in the same place took place three days later with the participation of President Andrzej Duda and Prime Minister Beata SzydƂo. The coffins of the presidential couple have been placed in a new sarcophagus made of Carrara marble.
Orders, decorations and prizes

Received from the office

As a result of taking the office of the President of the Republic of Poland, Lech KaczyƄski became a Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, Grand Master of the Order and chairman of its Chapter, and a Knight of the Order of the Rebirth of the First Class Poland, Grand Master of the Order and chairman of its Chapter.

Selected foreign orders and decorations

* Gold Chain and Star of the Order of Merit of the Order of Malta (Order of Malta, 2007) * Chain of the Order of the King Abdulaziza (Saudi Arabia, 2007) * The Order of Victory of St. George (Georgia, 2007) * Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise First Class (Ukraine, 2007) * Grand Order of King TomisƂaw (Croatia, 2008) * Grand Cross with the Great Chain of the Order of Infante Henry (Portugal, 2008) * Honorary Companion of Honor with Collar of the National Order of Merit (Malta, 2009) * Order of the Double Class I Cross (Slovakia, 2009 ) * The Great Cross with the Order of Merit Chain (Hungary, 2009) * The Great Cross with the Golden Chain of the Order of Witold the Great (Lithuania, 2009) * Order Heydra liyeva (Azerbaijan, 2009) * The Great Cross with the Chain of the Star of Romania (Romania, 2009) * Order of the White Lion of the First Class with Chain (Czech Republic, January 21, 2010) * National Hero of Georgia (posthumously, Georgia, 2010)

Honorary citizenships

* CzyĆŒew (2007) * Nowy Sącz (2009)

Other awards

* Title of the Man of the Year 2004, awarded by Tygodnik Solidarnoƛć * Title of the Man of the Year 2006, awarded by the Federation of Regional Unions of Municipalities and Poviats * European Youth 2006 Award granted by Turkish journalism and economic organizations for supporting the integration process of Turkey with the European Union * Medal of the Day In memory of the Victims of the Katyn Massacre, granted by the Polish Katyn Foundation (2008) * Cross of the Honorary Scout of the Republic in connection with the taking of the honorary protectorate over scouting organizations (2008), * Haller's Ring of the Sea and River League (2009) * Gold Medal of the Cardinal Stefan WyszyƄski University (2009) * Golden Cross of Honorary Organizational Badge for Merits for the Pilsudski Union of the Republic of Poland (2009)

Doctorates honoris causa

He received honorary doctorates from the Georgian State University Iwane DĆŒawachiszwilego (2007), National Academy of State Administration under the President of Ukraine (2007), National Mongolian University (2008), Hankuk University of Foreign Studies in Seoul (2008), Slavonic University in Baku (2009), John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin (2009) ).
commemoration

Posthumous decorations and distinctions

In 2010, Lech KaczyƄski was posthumously awarded the Medal of Merit for Justice - Bene Merentibus Iustitiae, the Honorary Cross of the Scouting Association of the Republic - AD AMICUM and the Honorary Badge of Merit for the Podkarpackie Voivodeship, and in 2011 the Semper Fidelis Cross awarded by the Solidarity Union of Polish Veterans. In 2017, he was posthumously awarded the Custos of National Remembrance Award by the Institute of National Remembrance. Lech KaczyƄski was posthumously awarded the titles of an honorary citizen: in 2010, Bogatynia, Warsaw, Leszno, Lower Silesia, Turku, Tarnobrzeg, Wadowice, Skórcza , in 2011 Radom, and in 2013 Jastrzębia-Zdrój.

Sponsorships

Resolutions of city councils named Lech KaczyƄski were named, among others, in 2010, a park in Sopot, a street in Kielce, the largest (according to the date of posting) roundabout in Sieradz, square in ƚwidnica, park in Gdynia, square in OstroƂęka, roundabout in PuƂtusk, balcony hall of the town hall in GƂogów, roundabout in Zgierz, roundabout in Rumi, in 2011 the square in Lublin, the park in Zakopane, the roundabout in Starachowice, in 2012 the street in Siedlce, and in 2013 named Maria and Lech KaczyƄski the boulevard in WrocƂaw was named. Outside Poland, the name of the late president was named in 2010 in Ukraine, part of ul. Polish in Odessa (at the same time a memorial plaque was installed) and a street in Mukaczew. In the same year in Georgia, the name of Lech and Maria KaczyƄski was given to the Black Sea street in the Isani district of Tbilisi, the street in Batumi and the hospital in Essassa in the Libreville region of Gabon. Also in 2010, the name of Lech KaczyƄski received a street in Chisinau in Moldova, a street in Chicago in the United States and a square in Tbilisi in Georgia (where a monument in the form of a bust was placed). In 2016, his name was given to a street in Zhytomyr, Ukraine. However, in 2017, the name of the former president received streets in Elmwood Park and in Franklin Park in the United States. In 2010, the primary school in CheƂchach near EƂk (as the first in Poland) was given the name of Lech KaczyƄski. In 2011, the primary school in Podsarnie in the Lesser Poland voivodeship was named after Lech and Maria KaczyƄski. In 2016, the LNG terminal in ƚwinoujƛcie and the National School of Public Administration received the name of the President of the Republic of Poland Lech KaczyƄski. In 2017, its name was given to the Main Library of the Polish Naval Academy in Gdynia. In December 2016 in Gdansk was organized a representative tournament in the hockey for the Cup of them. President Lech KaczyƄski, part of the EIHC series.

Monuments and obelisks

The first obelisk commemorating Lech KaczyƄski was erected in 2010 in Skórcz . In 2012, in the Pantheon of Heroes at the Cemetery of the Fallen in Warsaw Battle in Ossów, a monument was unveiled in the form of a bust commemorating President Lech KaczyƄski, in 2013 in Radom a monument to the late presidential couple, and in 2014 a monument to Lech KaczyƄski in Siedlce. In 2015, busts of Lech KaczyƄski in Grudziądz and in Minsk Mazowiecki were unveiled. On 10 April 2018, the cornerstone for the monument to Lech KaczyƄski was paved on the marches square. Józef PiƂsudski in Warsaw. It was unveiled during the celebrations of the 100th anniversary of regaining independence on November 10, 2018 by President Andrzej Duda and the daughter of the deceased Marta KaczyƄska and his brother JarosƂaw KaczyƄski.

others

In 2011, the National Bank of Poland introduced into circulation a gold coin with a face value of PLN 100 with the image of Lech KaczyƄski and Maria KaczyƄska in a circulation of 5,000. copies. Images of Lech and Maria KaczyƄski were placed on postage stamps issued by Mozambique, Togo, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia and SĂŁo TomĂ© and PrĂ­ncipe, as well as Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. In 2011, the Social Movement named after President of the Republic of Poland Lech KaczyƄski, whose management appointed the. President of the Republic of Poland Lech KaczyƄski. Also since 2011 the Great Poland Design congress has awarded the. Lech KaczyƄski. After Lech KaczyƄski's death, numerous books were published describing his personality, including by Piotr Semka, Ɓukasz Warzecha, MichaƂ Karnowski and others. He is the hero of several documentaries, including Bitterness and Glory to Ewa ƚwieciƄska (2010) and President Joanna Lichocka and JarosƂaw Rybicki (2013).
Private life
Lech KaczyƄski was the husband of Maria KaczyƄska, with whom he married in 1978. He had one child - daughter Marta. He was a Catholic.
Book of entries
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Jerzy Gumowski / Agencja Agora
Jerzy Gumowski / Agencja Agora
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